Computer Languages


A natural language is a medium of communication between human being. The natural languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, English, etc. is used to communicate with each other our ideas and emotions. Similarly, a computer language is a means of communication used to communicate between people and the computer. With the help of a computer language, a programmer tells a computer what he wants it to do. All natural languages use a standard set of symbols for the purpose of communication. These symbols are understood by everyone using that language. We normally call this set of symbols the vocabulary of that particular language. For example, the words we use in English are the symbols of English language that make up its vocabulary. Each word has definite meaning which can be looked up in a dictionary. In a similar manner, all computer languages have a vocabulary of their own. Each symbol of the vocabulary has definite unambiguous meaning which can be looked up in the manual meant for that language. Hence, each symbol of a computer language is used to tell the computer to do a particular job. The main difference between natural language and computer language is that natural languages have a large vocabulary but most computer languages use a very limited or restricted vocabulary. Hence, each and every problem to be solved by a computer has to be broken down into discrete (simple and separate), logical steps which basically comprise off our fundamental operations.

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PL/SQL – An Overview

  • An extension to SQL with design features of programming languages  (procedural and object oriented)
  • PL/SQL and Java are both supported as internal host languages within Oracle products.
  • The PL/SQL procedural language was developed by Oracle Corporation in the late 1980s as procedural extension language for SQL and the Oracle relational database.

Following are notable facts about PL/SQL:

  • It is a completely portable, high-performance transaction-processing language.
  • PL/SQL provides a built-in interpreted and OS independent programming environment.

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In our previous lecture we discussed

Most of all basics of the Relational databases

Objectives of Normalization

Modification anomalies includes Deletion Anomaly and Insertion Anomaly also Updation Anomaly

Functional Dependencies and  Fully Functional Dependencies with Armstrong’s axioms of FD etc.

Now we have to talk about Normalization and  Different forms of normalization.

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Software Quality Assurance Plans & Project Monitoring Plans

What is Quality?

žThe American Heritage Dictionary defines Quality as a characteristic or attribute of something.

žAs an attribute of an item, quality refers to measurable characteristics – things we are able to compare to known standards such as length, color, electrical properties, and malleability.

žQuality of design refers to the characteristics that designers specify for an item. The grade of materials, tolerances, and performance specifications all contribute to the quality of design.

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Software Project Planning – IV : Software Configuration Management

žWhen we develop a software,then the product (software) undergoes many changes in their maintenance phase,  we need to handle these changes effectively.

žHowever, several individual (programs) works together to achieve this common goal.  These individual produces several work product (SC Items) for example intermediate version of modules or test data used during debugging, part of final product.

žThe item that comprise all information produced as part of the software process are collectively called a software configuration.

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Software Project Planning – II : Risk Management & Project Scheduling

žRisk concerns future happenings. Tomorrow’s problems are today’s risk.

žHence, a simple definition of a “risk” is a problem that could cause some loss or threaten the success of the project, but with has not happened yet.

žThese potential problems might have an adverse impact on cost, schedule, or technical success of the project, the quality of our software products, or project team morale.

žRisk management is the process of identifying addressing and eliminating these problems before they can damage the project.

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Programming With C : Nested Loops and Jumping Statements- Lecture4

As we discussed in our last chapter

Loops, like if-else statements, can be nested, one within another.

While, the inner and outer loops need not be generated by the same type of control structure.

It is essential,  that one loop be completely embedded within the other  – there can be no overlap.

Therefore, Each loop must be controlled by different index.

Moreover, nested control structure can involve both loops and if-else statement.

Thus, a loop can be nested within an if-else statement, and an if-else statement can be nested within a loop.

Hence, the nested structure may be complex as necessary, as determined by the program logic.

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Programming with C – “Control Statements – Loop”- Lecture 3

Suppose we want to display hello on output screen five times in five different lines.

We might think of writing either five printf statements or one printf statement consisting of constant “hello\n” five times.

What if we want to display hello 500 times?

Should we write 500 printf statement or equivalent ?

Obviously not.

It means that we need some programming facility to repeat certain works. Such facility in Programming Languages is available in the form Looping Statements.

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Programming with C – Input/Outputs & Decision Making-Lecture 2

Structure of C Program

# include < header file>  // # is pre-processor directive

 #define x  5  //symbolic constant

int a, b;   //global variable declaration

int fxn();  // function declaration

main() //main function


int i,j,k;     // local variable declaration

Input statements;


Output Statements;


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