Computer Languages


A natural language is a medium of communication between human being. The natural languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, English, etc. is used to communicate with each other our ideas and emotions. Similarly, a computer language is a means of communication used to communicate between people and the computer. With the help of a computer language, a programmer tells a computer what he wants it to do. All natural languages use a standard set of symbols for the purpose of communication. These symbols are understood by everyone using that language. We normally call this set of symbols the vocabulary of that particular language. For example, the words we use in English are the symbols of English language that make up its vocabulary. Each word has definite meaning which can be looked up in a dictionary. In a similar manner, all computer languages have a vocabulary of their own. Each symbol of the vocabulary has definite unambiguous meaning which can be looked up in the manual meant for that language. Hence, each symbol of a computer language is used to tell the computer to do a particular job. The main difference between natural language and computer language is that natural languages have a large vocabulary but most computer languages use a very limited or restricted vocabulary. Hence, each and every problem to be solved by a computer has to be broken down into discrete (simple and separate), logical steps which basically comprise off our fundamental operations.

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Software Project Planning – IV : Software Configuration Management

žWhen we develop a software,then the product (software) undergoes many changes in their maintenance phase,  we need to handle these changes effectively.

žHowever, several individual (programs) works together to achieve this common goal.  These individual produces several work product (SC Items) for example intermediate version of modules or test data used during debugging, part of final product.

žThe item that comprise all information produced as part of the software process are collectively called a software configuration.

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Boolean Algebra

BOOLEAN Algebra was developed by George Boole (1815- 1864), an English mathematician and logician.

The credit for applying the laws of Boolean algebra goes to Claude. E. Shannon, an electrical engineer. Claude. E. Shannon in the year 1938, suggested that Boolean algebra can be applied to problems arising in telephone switching circuits and for this reason Boolean algebra is also known as Switching Algebra.

The other noteworthy persons to realise the significance of this algebra were August De- Morgan, Alfred North -White Head and Beltrand Russell.

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Programming With C : Nested Loops and Jumping Statements- Lecture4

As we discussed in our last chapter

Loops, like if-else statements, can be nested, one within another.

While, the inner and outer loops need not be generated by the same type of control structure.

It is essential,  that one loop be completely embedded within the other  – there can be no overlap.

Therefore, Each loop must be controlled by different index.

Moreover, nested control structure can involve both loops and if-else statement.

Thus, a loop can be nested within an if-else statement, and an if-else statement can be nested within a loop.

Hence, the nested structure may be complex as necessary, as determined by the program logic.

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