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Computer Languages

COMPUTER LANGUAGES

A natural language is a medium of communication between human being. The natural languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, English, etc. is used to communicate with each other our ideas and emotions. Similarly, a computer language is a means of communication used to communicate between people and the computer. With the help of a computer language, a programmer tells a computer what he wants it to do. All natural languages use a standard set of symbols for the purpose of communication. These symbols are understood by everyone using that language. We normally call this set of symbols the vocabulary of that particular language. For example, the words we use in English are the symbols of English language that make up its vocabulary. Each word has definite meaning which can be looked up in a dictionary. In a similar manner, all computer languages have a vocabulary of their own. Each symbol of the vocabulary has definite unambiguous meaning which can be looked up in the manual meant for that language. Hence, each symbol of a computer language is used to tell the computer to do a particular job. The main difference between natural language and computer language is that natural languages have a large vocabulary but most computer languages use a very limited or restricted vocabulary. Hence, each and every problem to be solved by a computer has to be broken down into discrete (simple and separate), logical steps which basically comprise off our fundamental operations.

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Computer Software and Types of Software

INTRODUCTION

Program or a set of programs is known as Software. Now, What is program? Program is a instruction or set of instructions. So, we can say Computer Programs, namely, the list of  instructions to be executed by a computer are known as the software of a computer. The electronic circuits used in building the computer that executes the software is known as hardware of a computer.   It refers to the physical devices of a computer system, such as Input devices, storage devices, processing unit, control unit , and output devices. A hardware is linked together with software to form a effective working unit that is a computer system.  To take analogy, a home television set bought from a shop is hardware; the various entertainment programs transmitted from the television station are its software. It is immediately evident that hardware is necessary but software is vital. What is the use of a home television set if the programs not transmitted by television station. Another important point brought out by this analogy is that software production is difficult and expensive. Hardware is one-time expense whereas software is a recurring expense.

Thus, there is a special relationship between hardware and software. Both are complementary to each other. Hardware is nothing without software and vice-versa.  By very simple example, these two can be described as both a notebook and a pen are hardware and the written material on notebook is software.

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What is Computer?

The word computer means to compute or to calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device.

But, more than 85% of the work done by computer today is of non-mathematical. Hence, a computer may be defined as a device that operates upon data or information. So computer can be defined as a machine in which we can

  • Store data or information,
  • Process data or information,
  • Retrieve data or information

With our requirements

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