Structured Query Language – SQL – Basics

SQL, a Structured Query Language is now available with most RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) products as the database language. Which can be used both by end-users and system programmers.

Originally, SQL was called SEQUEL( for Structured English QUEry Language).

SQL is now standard language for commercial relational DBMS.

First reason, a query in relational algebra is written as a sequence of operations that, after execution, produce the required result. Hence, the user must specify how –that is, in what order – to execute the query operations.

On the other hand, the SQL provides a high-level declarative language interface, so the user only specifies what the result is to be, leaving the actual optimization and decision on how to execute the query to the DBMS.

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In our previous lecture we discussed

Most of all basics of the Relational databases

Objectives of Normalization

Modification anomalies includes Deletion Anomaly and Insertion Anomaly also Updation Anomaly

Functional Dependencies and  Fully Functional Dependencies with Armstrong’s axioms of FD etc.

Now we have to talk about Normalization and  Different forms of normalization.

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Software Quality Assurance Plans & Project Monitoring Plans

What is Quality?

žThe American Heritage Dictionary defines Quality as a characteristic or attribute of something.

žAs an attribute of an item, quality refers to measurable characteristics – things we are able to compare to known standards such as length, color, electrical properties, and malleability.

žQuality of design refers to the characteristics that designers specify for an item. The grade of materials, tolerances, and performance specifications all contribute to the quality of design.

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Software Project Planning – IV : Software Configuration Management

žWhen we develop a software,then the product (software) undergoes many changes in their maintenance phase,  we need to handle these changes effectively.

žHowever, several individual (programs) works together to achieve this common goal.  These individual produces several work product (SC Items) for example intermediate version of modules or test data used during debugging, part of final product.

žThe item that comprise all information produced as part of the software process are collectively called a software configuration.

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Software Project Planning – III : Personnel Planning

žPersonnel planning basically deals with staffing. Therefore before going to personnel planning, first of all we discuss Staffing.

žStaffing deals with the hiring personnel for the position that are identified by the organizational structure.

žIt involves
  • ždefining requirements for personnel.
  • žrecruiting (identifying, interviewing and selecting candidates).
  • žcompensating. also
  • ždeveloping and promoting employees.

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Software Project Planning – II : Risk Management & Project Scheduling

žRisk concerns future happenings. Tomorrow’s problems are today’s risk.

žHence, a simple definition of a “risk” is a problem that could cause some loss or threaten the success of the project, but with has not happened yet.

žThese potential problems might have an adverse impact on cost, schedule, or technical success of the project, the quality of our software products, or project team morale.

žRisk management is the process of identifying addressing and eliminating these problems before they can damage the project.

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Software Project Planning – I : COCOMO & Putnam

Planning a Software Project

žPlanning is perhaps the most important  activity of management.

  • žThe basic goal of planning is to find the activity which is to be performed for completing  a project.
  • žMoreover, a good plan is that which can handle all the uncertain event which can occur during the development of project.
  • žWe also can say that,  A good planning helps in good decision making.
  • Hence, žLack of planning is a primary cause of schedule slippage, cost overruns, poor quality, and high maintenance costs for software.

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Boolean Algebra

BOOLEAN Algebra was developed by George Boole (1815- 1864), an English mathematician and logician.

The credit for applying the laws of Boolean algebra goes to Claude. E. Shannon, an electrical engineer. Claude. E. Shannon in the year 1938, suggested that Boolean algebra can be applied to problems arising in telephone switching circuits and for this reason Boolean algebra is also known as Switching Algebra.

The other noteworthy persons to realise the significance of this algebra were August De- Morgan, Alfred North -White Head and Beltrand Russell.

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